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Related post: vasomotor center, however, does not occur with therapeutic doses, but only as the con-
vulsant effects are approached; and especially during the convulsions proper (Pilcher
and Sollmann, 1915). Often the blood pressure is not changed by moderate doses.
The most frequent result, according to Winterberg, 1903, and Liebmann, 1912, consists
in persistent fall of blood pressure, occasionally preceded by a slight and short rise.
The rise is attributed to central vasomotor stimulation; but the fall is produced by pe-
ripheral action on the vessels. Heard and Brooks, 1913, obtained quite negative results.
Liebmann finds that the pulmonary vessels dilate before the systemic. The widespread
vasodilation results in lowering the pressure in the right heart. Frey, 1909, found no
effect on pulmonary hemorrhage. The cerebral vessels are also dilated (Berezin, 1916).
Clinical Effects on Circulation. Camphor is used clinically as a
temporary cardiac stimulant. Opinions are divided as to its usefulness.
The effects, if they occur, are inconstant and unreliable. However, its
employment is harmless.
In normal individuals and in cardiovascular disease, camphor (even up to 3 Gm.
hypodermically Heard and Brooks, 1913) does not alter the blood pressure, or the rate
or quality of the pulse. In collapse conditions, especially in febrile toxemias, most
clinicians believe that hypodermic injections improve the volume, tension and regularity
of the pulse temporarily. G. Schwartz, Buy Primidone 1906, generally found a rise of blood pressure
of 10 to 20 mm., too slight to explain the improvement. It is possible but not certain
that the weakened human heart responds better to camphor than experiments on animals
would indicate. It is also conceivable that the stimulation is reflex, since the injections
produce considerable local reaction (Heard and Brooks). The regulating influence on
delirium cordis might be beneficial in auricular fibrillation, but the action would probably
be too brief.
Administration. The camphor is employed intramuscularly, dis-
solved in sterile olive oil, i to 2 c.c. of the 10 per cent, solution being
repeated in ten- to fifteen-minute intervals as needed. In babies of one
year, A. Jacobi advises J^LO to % grain every two hours. Intravenous
injection (250 to 350 c.c. of o.i per cent, in saline) is safe, but less effective
Other Uses. Camphor Spirit is a household remedy in colds, bronchitis,
etc. It is probably somewhat expectorant, diaphoretic and antipyretic
(Binz, 1875 and 1877). The skin vessels are dilated. It was also advised
in tuberculosis, but has not found much support. Camphor has also been
used as a nervous depressant in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea, and con-
vulsions, and as an anaphrodisiac. This rests on no rational basis.
Respiration. The effects of non-convulsant doses are very slight and inconstant,
Edsall and Means, 1914, and Higgins and Means, 1915, studied the effects on man,
using 0.4 to 0.5 Gm. hypodermically. They found the center sometimes slightly stimu-
lated by bronchodilation and slight increase of carbon metabolism. The rate was
often slowed; the volume, single or minute, was unchanged.
In animals, the respiration is somewhat slowed but deepened, so that the minute
volume is increased. Wieland, 1915, claims lowering of the threshold for CGv Isaac
found it especially effective after morphin.
These are similar in man and animals, consisting in stimulation and
then depression Buy Primidone Online and paralysis of the central nervous system.
The treatment would consist Generic Primidone in evacuation and stimulation. Alcohol
and oils should be avoided since they favor absorption.
Symptoms in Man. These consist in nausea, vomiting, colic, vertigo, disturbed
vision, tipsiness, excitement, impulsive movements, delirium, loss of consciousness, face
flushed, then pale.; epileptiform convulsions are a constant feature in animals, and some-
times occur m man (after 1.5 Gm.; Austragesillo, 1915); often anuria (illustrative
reports, Stanley, 1903; F. Barker, 1910; Koppang, 1912). Death is rare in man, occur-
ring by asphyxia and collapse. Convalescence may last several days or weeks; the gastric
disturbance is especially persistent.
Convulsions. In mammals, these are located mainly in the hemispheres; for removal
of the hemispheres with section below the optic thalami diminishes (Albertoni, 1882)
or abolishes (Morita, 1915) the convulsions.
The spinal cord also shows some stimulation, and finally paralysis, but this does
not come on until late, and is not important in mammals.
In frogs, on the other hand, the action on the spinal cord is very pronounced, and
consists in a paralysis. This entirely obscures any action which the drug may have
higher up in the nervous system in these animals. It appears that the path for reflex
impulses is blocked before that for impulses coming from the higher brain (Wiedemann,
1877; Binz, 1878). The symptoms are described by Grove, 1910.
Toxic Dose. This varies greatly: 0.7 to i Gm. has been fatal to children and toxic
to adults; 2 Gm. generally produced dangerous effects; but 15 Gm. have been survived
(Koppang) ; and in an infant of eighteen months, i Gm. produced little if any symptoms
416 MANUAL OF PHARMACOLOGY
Solvent and Place of Administration on Toxicity. Cairis, 1914,- and Carnot and
Cairis, 1914, have studied these on guinea pigs. With oral administration, the toxicity
of camphor is greatly decreased by oil. Hypodermically, oily solutions are also less
toxic than alcoholic, ethereal or even watery solutions. Intraperitoneal are more
toxic than hypodermic injections. Oral administration is more effective than intra-
muscular (Hatcher and Eggleston, 1914).
The synthesis of artificial camphor is described by Kebler, 1907; Houseman, 1915.
Langgaard, and Maass, 1907, showed that the actions of the three isomers ar,e qualita-
tively identical. Grawitz, 1907, claimed that the therapeutic effects, internal and
external, are indistinguishable. Haemaelaeinen, 1908, states that the levorotary is less
effective on the heart; but its central actions are more powerful (Grove, 1910). Heffter,
1914, concluded that artificial camphor is probably more toxic and often contains im-
purities; that it could be substituted externally, but more experience would be needed
to justify its internal use. The war has furnished the occasion for this experience; and
Luetz, 1915, concludes that its hypodermic use, clinically, has given no bad effects.
Borneol (Borneo-Camphor, CioHisO), is used in the orient. It acts similarly to
This was introduced by Fuerbinger, 1888, as anhydrotic against the
night-sweats of phthisis. It aroused some enthusiasm at first (literature,
Fujitani, 1906); but experimental investigations have given entirely nega-
tive results (Dreesmann, 1889; Fujitani; Tyrode, 1908; Roth, 1911); and
the clinical effects were also disappointing (Tyrode). The drug is there-
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